حركة العدل والمساواة السودانية الجديدة
The New Sudanese Justice and Equality Movement
Sudan has come from far: colonial history, history of political instability and civil wars, history of bad governance and dictatorship, and limited democracy. The Struggle has had its own problems and challenges: individualism, forced suppression by the state, loss in leadership, interference from foreign powers, gross human rights abuses, and creation of Internal displace persons and refugees, etc.
We the people of Sudan declare for all our country and the world to know, Sudan belongs to all Sudanese, Africans and non-Africans, Muslims and Christians, that no government can justly claim authority unless it is based on the will of all the people. The people shall govern; all national groups shall have equal rights; the people shall share in the country’s wealth: the land shall be shared among those who work it; all shall be equal before the law: all shall enjoy equal human rights; there shall be work, stability, peace and security: the doors of learning and of culture shall be opened; there shall be houses, security and comfort: there shall be peace and friendship and flourishing.
Above all, we want equal social, civilization and political rights. Political division based on color, political party, religion and race, is entirely artificial and, when it disappears, so will the domination of one color group by another. The New JEM has spent fourteen years fighting against injustice, marginalization, abuse of gross human rights, and racism. It is a struggle of the Sudanese people, inspired by their own suffering and their own experience. It is a struggle for the right to live.
First of all, let us have a focused, robust and inclusive movement which has a philosophy of a serious struggle and a resistance for the people, where we are all as a nation fighting against the current regime’s brutality, oppression and injustices including the gross Human Rights Abuses.
Unfortunately, we have a compromised, individualistically-led struggle by fighting groups rather than strugglists and resisters of a genuine movement. We must re-think the current landscape of struggle and resistance, to be led by an ideology which reflects our understanding of this sacrifices already made, the suffering being endured and the hopes of all the people in the struggle and resistance.
2. The nature and character of movement we want to have is:
A broad- based, nationalist, liberal, and welfare- led economics movement.
(a) Broad-Based Movement, we are non-discriminatory, our future is ‘Sudan’ and ‘In Sudan’.
(b) Nationalist, we are led by the desire to put Sudan for Sudanese as everybody else does it across the world.
(c) Liberal, we are led by tolerance and accommodation of all the voices of the suffering people.
(d) Welfare-Led Economics, we are mindful of the poverty of the majority of the people caused by mismanagement of our national wealth.
3. The time and space of the movement’s agenda:
A prolonged protracted peace process
The movement can rely on the strategy of demonstrating willingness to use offensive military force for the sake of protecting the people and their objects, and ensuring a relatively enabling environment for civilian activities, and also in taking power should the brutality of the regime warrant desperate measures as always demonstrated. However, the movement can pursue the course of a protracted peace process in which arms and the force of arms will be used in only defensive purposes and also to maintain the military balance until a real peace agreement has been achieved and the end of the civil war in Sudan.
4. What kind of Sudan do we want to see at the end of all this?
An inclusive, liberal and federal, national and neutral State of citizenship:
(1) Social justice: in terms of the treatment of one another (equity, equality, fairness and justice) (need for human dignity of the people as citizens and human beings).
(2) Fair-share of National Wealth (The benefit of all for prosperity-now and posterity-future generations) (The opportunities, natural resources, and man-made resources).
(3) Development: (The realization of full human potentials including as citizens and people of Sudan) (industrialization-processing and production, infrastructure tools to facilitate development: transport and communication, energy, education, health, urbanization, standard of living, pensions).
(4) Peace and Security: conflict resolution and management-justice (righting the wrongs) and peace (consensus and co-existence).
(5) Political Stability: fight and eradicate corruption, freeing despotism, combating nepotism, reformation of bad governance, violation of rule of law and promote constitutionalism, monitoring and preventing human rights abuses.
(6) Establishment of Independent State Institutions:
i. Military/armed forces;
ii. Government and its organs (executive, legislature, judiciary, central administrative organ-civil service/public service);
iii. Civil Society; and
Independent organs of government: executive, legislature, judiciary, central administrative organ-civil service/public service
a. Independence of state institutions between and among them refers to the amount of power that the other three institutions (government and its organs (executive, legislature, judiciary, central administrative organ-civil service/public service), Civil Society, and Press) can exercise against the influence of the first (military/armed forces).
b. Independence of the organs of government between and among them refers to the amount of authority that the other three (legislature, judiciary, central administrative organ-civil service/public service) can exercise against the influence of the first (executive)
(7) Nation Building for a non-divisive identity: best management of (ethnicity, religion, social class, etc) differences.
(8) National Image: having (Good Neighborliness, International Standing)
(9) Gender and Equality: women participation in decision-making in all spheres of gainful life.
5. The way how the movement organizes itself.
A. By our strengths in capabilities: numbers (mass), awareness, finance, manpower, organization and mobilization skills, physical presence, networks and partnerships, media, and civil society.
B. By populations: our internally displaced people, disadvantaged people, destitute, minorities, and the all Sudanese people with their different religious, cultures, tribes, and race.
C. By experience in struggle and resistance: international and regional standing, alternatives to armed struggle and resistance, and mobilization of mass movement.
D. By time spent in struggle and resistance: eminent persons in Sudanese politics, combat experience, and political activists at the center and other regions,
E. By networks that are accessed and can be helpful: regional and global partners, business communities, Non-Governmental Organizations, and local communities.
F. By the structure of the movement: (Administration and Management): the militant revolutionary units; those who have the largest support; nationally those who have international presence and support; those with the fighting forces; and those who controlling territories within Sudan.
G. Governance issues: (Quality of leadership issues): well trust, patient and confident leadership; honesty and trustworthiness leadership over time of our struggle; and reliable leadership.
H. Partnership: Scholars, thinkers, strategists, analysts, lecturers, teachers, non-governmental organizations, media houses, and business communities.
I. Training and experience: in politics, economics, combat, education, security, military, and information and communication, etc.
6. The operations of the a movement:
Political and armed struggle: both a political wing and military wing.
(i) Political wing to help and market the struggle and resistance among the people in the towns and villages especially those outside the war zones, and it should be doing only the politics of the struggle and resistance and administration o-f massive popular uprising.
(ii) The military wing to increase the threat of takeover of power by arms and force of arms, and it should only do the protection of the people (civilians and civilian activities) and also exhibit willingness to the use of force to pressure the regime. The armed struggle until the government how its willingness to surrender the monopoly of political power, and to negotiate directly and in good faith with the acknowledged strugglers.
7. The ways the movement will advertize itself and its vision among the people, citizens, and whole nation, to have an inclusive, liberal, federal-decentralized, national and neutral state of citizenship.
1) The message (political vision): The future of the Sudanese is ‘Sudan and In Sudan’
A shift from authoritarian military regime style to a non-military authoritarian and civilianized regime style.
A shift from the vertical-authoritarian dimensions of government to horizontal-democratic dimensions of state and government.
2) Power devolution: both vertically and horizontally to enhance progressive-democratization and sustain civilian rule, governance and leadership.
Vertically, there must be functional distinctions in the exercise of authority between the individuals and groups who possess power and authority in the state and government structure.
Vertically still, there must be democratic distinctions in the exercise of power and authority between the principal state institutions (Government, Civil Society, Press, Military and Civil Service).
Horizontally, there must be horizontal expression of power and authority in the state by transmitting state authority across the state to every territorial part of the society.
Building a national consciousness and common purpose in the New Sudan through the liberation of the individual and society from all forms of political, economical, social and other constraints.
Restructuring of the old Sudan in the interest of a balance relations between the different regions and the center, based on a new system of governance of equal citizenship.
Establishing a new mechanism of equitable power and wealth sharing in the interest of all regions, nationalities, and gender in the New Sudan.
Promotion of good foreign relationships based on mutual respect among the nations and preservation of international peace, Security and Stability, with emphasis to achieving a union between two independent states of Republic of Sudan and Republic of South Sudan.
According to a foresaid, introduction, the NEW JEM extending hands to the regional and international powers which have been successful in managing the diversity and setting example of decentralized system of governance.
3) Federal Arrangement of the State of Sudan should be done to create opportunities for all the various groups of people in Sudan to develop and progress in fairness and justice.
a. The Triangle Capital of Sudan (Khartoum) should be regarded as a special administrative area. The administrative local government structure should be inclusive of all political groups in the parliament. The highest offices should be rotational between the groups; however, the lower offices should be filled on agreed quotas.
b. The rest of the country (Sudan) should be federalized on the basis of six federal regions as an agreed arrangement that the people of Sudan and the political groups operating in the country have decided upon through national consensus and consent.
c. There will be a federal government (national government) at the center. There will also be regional governments at the regions. There will also be state governments at the state level. And there will also be local governments at the local levels.
8. How does the movement deliver its message?
(i) We deliver the message through the movement structures, including the partners, populations benefiting from the protection of the movement, Diaspora, representatives in the towns and cities including villages.
(ii) We deliver the message at all times, and especially when there are incidences that demonstrate weaknesses, oppression and brutality of the regime (immediately aftermath of formation of the movement.)
(iii) We deliver the message using Media, Seminars, Campaigns, IEC materials (Information, Education, and communications), humanitarian activities.
9. Identity Crisis of the State in Sudan
Historically Sudan after foreign colonialism was secular state, but was made non-secular and radicalized into an Islamist-radical and fundamentalist state by fusing religion with state institutions by the political parties and individuals.
Our Proposition is:
Sudan is multi-ethnic, multi-cultural, multi-religions, intellectual and multi-languages country; therefore Sudanese identity is composed of collections of its cultural, geographical and inherited civilization which is more than seven thousands years old.
A National Identity for Sudan which does not make a particular and/or specific socio-cultural preference: religious, ideologically and ethnically as the official identity of the state. (Why)?
(1) Rather Sudan should be: An inclusive, liberal and federal, national and neutral State of citizenship in which no fusion of the state with religious institutions, or fusion of anyone religion with state institutions. Thus, no anyone religion can be the official religion of the state. Any fusion of the state with a specific religion perpetuates segregation (division) and later discrimination (exclusiveness) all of which breed marginalization (classification and stratification) and resistance against marginalization. There will be political instability hence Civil War.
(2) A state which is not built on specific socio-cultural foundations and preferences to be its defining identity allows for inclusiveness; where there is equity and some equality, and fairness and justice (ultimately social justice).
(3) Sudan needs an identity which inspires the Sudanese into pride for their nationality hence enhancing the notion of National Pride.
(4) Sudan suffers from an identity crisis. The people of Sudan sometimes want to refer to themselves as various identities such as: Arabs, Africans and as by their ethnic-nationalities. The lack of a common identity agreed upon by common consensus as resulted into feelings of superiority, subordination and marginalization among the people. This has also led to resistance founded on the basis of fighting against domination and discrimination by a certain group over the others.
(5) Resolving the resulting problems and challenges due to the identity crisis require Sudan to develop a Sudanism identity to which all the people feel inspired as a nation discouraging feelings of marginalization and alienation.
10. Domestic Policy:
1. Transitional Justice Issues of Post Conflict Situation
Transitional Justice embodies an attempt to build a sustainable peace after the conflicts in war zones areas (Darfur, Blue-Nile and Nuba Mountains), mass violence and systematic human rights abuse.
Transitional justice involves prosecuting perpetrators, revealing the truth about past and ongoing crimes, providing victims with reparations, reforming abusive institutions and promoting reconciliation. This requires a comprehensive set of strategies that must deal with the events of the past and ongoing but also look to the future in order to prevent a recurrence of conflict and abuse.
2. Security Sector Reform:
The objective of security sector reform (SSR) is to design, to govern, to manage, to develop, to transform and reform, and deliver national security services, such that it promotes effective, legitimate, transparent, and accountable security services in Sudan.
The reform of a country’s security sector is essential in post-conflict contexts. In those settings, making people of Sudan feel safe and secure and re-building confidence between the State and its peoples is vital for sustainable peace, security, stability and development. In other contexts, security sector reform is to prevent other conflicts or crises from emerging or resurging and it is also a process that many States undertake on a regular basis to respond to emerging threats or potential internal or external pressures.
Security sector reform is as essential to prevent the recurrence of conflict and to enhance public security, which in turn is necessary to initiate reconstruction and development initiatives.
Refugees and IDPs crisis:
In Sudan, many regions are in a war situation, especially in Darfur region, Blue Nile, and Nuba Mountain. Darfur region remains extremely volatile throughout the last three decades. There are number of peace agreements been signed between the regime in Khartoum and different fragmentary militant groups especially in Darfur, Blue-Nile and Nuba Mountains. However, the agreements did not improve any peace, stability and security neither in Darfur nor Blue Nile and Nuba Mountains. The ongoing killings, air and ground bombardment, Rapid Support Forces (RSF) attacks, rape and mass violations of human rights, create more complex humanitarian situation in Darfur and huge numbers of refugees fled to Chad, South Sudan, Central African Republic, Kenya and other countries in Africa and beyond.
The internally displaced persons must be protected from the RSF, government forces, and other militia’s attacks. Furthermore, food, health and nutrition, Shelter and other infrastructure, clean and safe water and sanitation must also be provided by the peace mission (UNAMID) and the related international and regional governmental and non-governmental organizations, and it must allowed to pass and if needed will be protected to reach the needy people.
Refugees in different hosting countries must be given the same services, as well as their rights to resettlement in their willing countries, free return to those who their security shall be guaranteed, disarmament of pro-government militia, deportation of new habitants, their other basic needs should be provided, they should be compensated as individuals and collectively to enjoy their lives in Sudan, and enforced return of refugees and internally displaced persons must be stopped.
4. Create opportunity of employment
Because of the wrong policies made by the ruling party – National Congress Party (NCP) and the civil wars almost all over the Sudan, people whom are unemployed are in very big numbers. Unemployment contributes to reduced life expectancy among the several negative effects on individuals, communities, including reducing the quality and availability of housing and reducing the quality of schools and limiting the variety and availability of jobs and it slower economic growth.
Therefore, better job information to help reduce frictional unemployment; provide training for the unemployed graduates to help and present better skills and give themselves confidence in job interviews; increased labor market flexibility and it should encourage firms to set up and hire workers in the first place; provision of better education and training where it provides skills which will help the long-term unemployed to retrain and find jobs in a fast changing labor market are the policies among others to reduce long term structural unemployment in Sudan especially in warzones.
5. Natural Resources Management
Natural resource conflicts, disagreements and disputes over access to, and control and use of, natural resources in Sudan emerged because of the contradictions between local and failed introduced management systems by the central government; Misunderstandings and lack of information about inadequate policies and programs objectives; Contradictions or lack of clarity in laws and policies; inequity in resource distribution; poor policy and program implementation; People have different uses for resources such as forests, water, pastures and land, or want to manage them in different ways. Disagreements also arise when these interests and needs are incompatible, and when the priorities of some user groups are not considered in policies, programs and projects.
Our strategies to natural resource management are includes:
a. Customary systems for managing natural resources that local communities, resource users, project managers and public officials can use to manage and to resolve natural resource conflicts if arises.
b. Collaborative management, in which parties negotiate, define and guarantee among themselves the sharing of the management functions, entitlements and responsibilities for a given territory or set of natural resources.
c. Shifting the focus from resources to people, interventions should be participatory and have a genuine respect for people’s views. This includes respecting human freedom and choice, focusing on what matters to people, and working with them in a way that fits with their livelihood goals, their social environment and their ability to adapt.
d. Understanding how assets, vulnerability, voice and livelihood strategies differ among groups, as well as between men and women, and understanding of how these differences influence people’s ability and willingness to engage in participatory processes is also important.
e. Strengthen poor people’s rights and institutional capacity to engage fully in decision-making regarding all aspects of livelihoods. Foreign shareholders should be capable of listening to (not simply hearing) and responding appropriately to the poor.
f. To recognize the many influences those affect people, and seek to understand the relationships among these influences and their impacts on livelihood strategies and outcomes.
g. To promote an enabling environment and opportunities for poor people to protect, maintain and improve their livelihood assets. The approach also promotes collaboration between poor people, their institutions and organizations and the public and private sectors.
h. Partnerships need to be based on transparent agreements and shared goals. And poverty reduction takes place in a very changeable setting, in which unexpected shocks and seasonal cycles constantly occur. Supporting sustainable livelihoods requires long-term commitment and flexibility to respond to change.
6. Eradication of corruption
Sudan faces many of the corruption challenges that affect conflict-torn countries, with widespread corruption fuelling instability, insecurity and seriously undermining the fragile peace-building process. Corruption in Sudan is substantial, as it is considered one of the most corrupt countries in the world. In the 2011 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index, Sudan was 177th out of 183 countries, with a score of 1.6 on a 0 – 10 scale. Likewise, in the same year, Freedom House named Sudan as one of nine nations with the worst record for human rights.
On the 2010 World Bank Worldwide Governance Indicators, on a scale of 0 – 100, Sudan scored in the single digits in every category, including 0.9 for political stability, 6.2 for rule of law, 7.2 for regulatory quality, 6.7 for government effectiveness, and 4.3 for control of corruption. It ranked 174th out of 177 in the Corruption Perception Index 2013.
Sectors and institutions most affected by corruption in Sudan are including, extractive industries; Public financial management; Police and other security forces; Judiciary; Customs officials ; Job appointments; Procurement; Ministry of Finance and budgeting; Treatment of media; Treatment of NGOs; Elections; and Sale of public lands among others.
Our complementary efforts to fight and mitigate corruption:
(1) Well Payment of civil servants, whether civil servants are appropriately compensated or grossly underpaid will clearly affect motivation and incentives.
(2) Creating transparency and openness in government spending; Subsidies, tax exemptions, public procurement of goods and services, soft credits, extra-budgetary funds under the control of politicians all are elements of the various ways in which the elected governments manage public resources.
(3) The authorities must collect taxes, tap the capital markets to raise money, receive foreign aid and develop mechanisms to allocate these resources to satisfy a multiplicity of needs.
11. The governing system:
Sudan Should be a federal democratic diversity country; based on equality between the citizens; and assures that the people of Sudan are the source of power and consider that the citizenship is a base to get rights and perform duties and guarantees individual and group freedom.
12. Religion and the state:
Manifest in constitution and laws; that the religion institutions must be separated from state institutions.
13. International Conventions:
The state of Sudan must bind with principles and values of human rights known internationally; particularly conventions that deals with women and minority rights.
14. Justice and accountability:
Assurance on principle of justice and accountability, including general concepts and mechanisms of transitional justice which is in agreement with national, regional and international context, to put an end to impunity, through accountability to those who committed serious crimes and violated international humanitarian law and laws of the human rights.
15. Power and wealth:
Fair distribution of power and wealth should be according to criterion of the computation of the population in the region, with affirmative justice in favor of regiones affected by wars.
16. Nationalization of state institutions:
Confirmation and assurance that the state organized institutions; those keep security and implementing laws (Military, Police and Security services); are national and neutral.
17. Judiciary system:
Make sure the independency and professionalism of the national institution, that includes judicial system, civil service, media and the higher education institutions.
18. Neighborhood & peaceful coexistence:
It is the foreign policy that serves interests of the Sudanese nation and strenthens good neighborhood relationships and coexistence which would heal and resolve inherited hostile political positions been created by continuous tension, proxy wars and diplomatic confrontations with neighbors and the international community.
19. Women’s rights:
(1) Support for women politically, economically and other fields; in addition to abolish all laws that restrict women rights on top of them the what so called public orderliness law. Thus would achieve dignity for woman and enable her to play her role in life and as well be equal with men on human dignity and rights.
(2) Issue laws that protect women from being targeted, sexual harassment and invent mechanism for follow up to re-enfoce laws in to action.
(3) Fight the bad customs and traditions that harm women.
20. Basic rights and freedoms:
a. All principles and criterions concerns the human rights that are included in international and regional conventions of human rights that are ratified or would be ratified by Sudan; will be part of the transitional interim institutions of Sudan. Any bylaw or decree or decision issued against is erroneous and unconstitutional.
b. The laws give full equality between all citizens of Sudan fundamentally from principle of equal citizenship, respect for religious beliefs, traditions and customs. No discrimination against citizens because of the religion, race, sex, culture, geographical direction or political ideology. Any issued law against this, shall consider unconstitutional.
c. The state confesses and respects the diversity of religion beliefs, and obligates itself as well to work and achieves social coexistence and peaceful interaction, justice and forgiveness between different religions believers and traditional believers and give equal peaceful preaching opportunities; on the other hand forbid hatred and religious bickering instigations and discrimination against each other in the country.
d. The state (Sudan) is obligated to respect dignity of Sudanese woman and reassure the positive roles she plays in national political movements. Likewise, the state acknowledges all duties and rights of Sudanese woman as stipulated in regional and international conventions and agreements which has been ratified and would be ratified by the Republic of Sudan.
e. Media and education programs should be selected and designed to respect and serve values and principles of our people and regional and international human rights.
f. The permanent constitution should include economic, cultural and social civil freedoms and other rights as stipulated in regional and international conventions and agreements. Furthermore, the laws and principles of the ratified conventions to be raised higher than the national laws and legislations which are not in harmony with concerned rights.
21. Foreign Policy for Sudan:
Historical Context of current Sudan: Aggressive, Rogue, Interventionist, and Radicalist and Fundamentalist on religious matters state.
(i) Interdependence and Strategic Partnership: Sudan acknowledging that no anyone state that can live on its own as an island, instead there must be interdependence upon each other. However, interdependence should ensure mutual interest, respect and benefit.
(ii) Constructive Engagement: Relations between Sudan and other states must benefit the peoples of Sudan and those states rather than politicians and the regimes in power of the politicians of the relating states.
(iii) Evolutionary-pragmatism: Sudan acknowledging that many issues of conflicts and cooperation must be dealt with, the reality and rationality with a practical sense of judgment as such issues unfolds within the environment of relations between and among states. Therefore, the movement should seeks to emphasize in its foreign policy interests the following national interests:
1. Good neighborliness and peaceful co-existence at bilateral and multilateral interactions and relations.
2. A pro-active member of the civilized society of civilized states with due respect, observance and compliance with regional and international norms
3. A forerunner of the principle of non-interference in the matters of sovereign states.
4. An inclusive, national and neutral state of citizenship on religious matters outside the borders of Sudan.
5. Promote and work for good relations with Sudan’s neighbors in all spheres.
6. Being friends with all those who wish to be friends with Sudan.
7. We stand by our friends who have stood by us in times of need.
22. Our foreign Policy
A. Sudan should fully supporting and being committed to Regional and Continental Institutions.
B. Sudan should be working to maintain a secure and peaceful environment in and around Africa and Middle East.
C. Sudan should be working to maintain a free and open multilateral trading system with its counterparts.
D. Sudan should be ready to trade with any state for mutual benefits and will maintain an open market economy.
E. Sudan should be supporting and being active in international and regional organizations such as the UN and its associated frameworks, and AU and its associated frameworks.
23. Transitional period:
Actuality and reconciliation: Idea’s vocation is to promote sustainable democracy around the world. This includes attention to the specific challenges of democratization after violent conflict in numbers of regions in Sudan. This may involve the reconstruction of politics and society by national actors, or the temporary stewardship of democracy-building by the United Nations or others regional and national governmental and non-governmental organizations.
24. The unity of Sudan
The unity of Sudan is a challenge for the struggle and resistance, including the victims, survivors, both in the cities and in the camps. It is for this reason, why there needed to be a referendum for whole Sudan to create a path-way for a united Sudanese governing system instead of creating referendums for regions which perpetuate disunity in individualism.
A referendum for single entities only makes the unity Sudanese governing system and the unity of Sudan are difficult and illusion thus the reasons why suffering and pain cannot go away. Our only future lies in one referendum in which people are determining whether to go as separated entities or remain as part of a whole unit with one governing system. By this, the people can apply work on their future in a planned manner without being victims of exploitation associated with referendums owned at divide and role.